Discussing :: Landscaping and finishing

Many good architects or designers will discuss aspects of landscaping and garden design at a very early concept stage, but this isn't always the case. For some people it’s not until they move in and find their dream home surrounded by a sea of mud and builder's rubble, that their thoughts turn to landscaping. At this point you may want to call in the services of a professional landscaper. The process of briefing a landscaper is much the same as briefing an architect. They need to know what you like and how you live. Do you want lots of lawn for the kids to play on? A low-maintenance garden? Is privacy an issue? Do you want a structured... read full article



Chemical indicator are either physical or chemical devices used to monitor one or more of the
process parameters of the sterilization cycle. Currently they are divided into
6 classifications. They are as follows:

Class 1: Process indicators areintended for use with individual items, e.g., containers, to indicate that the
unit has been directly exposed to the sterilization process and to distinguish
between processed and nonprocessed items. Indicator tapes, indicator labels and
load cards are examples of externally visible chemical indicators that are on
the outside on the packages.

Class 2: Indicators are intendedfor use in specific test procedures as defined in relevant sterilizer/ sterilization
control standards. . Bowie-Dicks are one type of specific testing most are
familiar with. These are used to show the efficacy of air removal and steam

Class 3: A single variableindicator that is designed to solely show the exposure to one Sterilization
control products process at a stated value (SV) of the chosen variable. One
example of a single variable is a temperature tube that houses a chemical
pellet which melts at a specific temperature.

Class 4: These are considered asmultiple variable indicators. They are designed to react with two or more of
the critical variables and are intended to indicate exposure to a sterilization
cycle at SVs of the chosen variable. Examples of these class 4 would be the
paper strips with a color change chemical indicator. These are usually used
inside each package.

Class 5: Integrating indicatorsare designed to react with all critical variables. These can be used as
internal chemical indicators in all packs and containers for pack control monitoring.
They can also be used as an additional monitoring tool in order to be able to
release loads that do not contain implants based on the appropriate Process
Challenge Device. These indicators can also be used in implant loads IF a Biological
Indicator is run with the class 5 integrator. The load can NOT be released
until the BI result is known except in emergencies.

Class 6: These are calledemulating Indicators which are cycle verification indicators which are designed
to react to all critical variables for specified sterilization cycles. In other
words they are considered to be indicative of a complete cycle by showing the
presence or absence of specific time and temperature parameters during a cycle.
They are currently only available in the US for steam sterilization. Chemical indicator are convenient, are inexpensive, and indicate that the item has been exposed to
the sterilization process. In one study, chemical indicators were more likely

biological indicators toinaccurately indicate sterilization at marginal sterilization times (e.g., 2

Steam Chemical indicators shouldbe used in conjunction with biological indicators, but based on current studies
should not replace them because they indicate sterilization at marginal
sterilization time and because only a biological indicator consisting of
resistant spores can measure the microbial killing power of the sterilization
process. Chemical indicators are affixed on the outside of each pack to show
that the package has been processed through a sterilization cycle, but these
indicators do not prove sterilization has been achieved. Preferably, a chemical
indicator also should be placed on the inside of each pack to verify sterilant
penetration. Chemical indicators usually are either heat-or chemicalsensitive
inks that change color when one or more sterilization parameters (e.g.,
steam-time, temperature, and/or saturated steam; ETO-time, temperature,
relative humidity and/or ETO concentration) are present.

Chemical indicators have beengrouped into five classes based on their ability to monitor one or multiple
sterilization parameters. If the internal and/or external indicator suggests
inadequate processing, the item should not be used An air-removal test
(Bowie-Dick Test) must be performed daily in an empty dynamic-air-removal
sterilizer (e.g., prevacuum steam sterilizer) to ensure air removal. The
definitions listed above were taken from the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11140-1:2005 definitions.


Chemical indicator evice for monitoring a sterilization process. The device is designed to
respond with a characteristic chemical or physical change to one or more of the
physical conditions within the sterilizing chamber. Chemical indicators are
intended to detect potential sterilization failures that could result from
incorrect packaging, incorrect loading of the sterilizer, or malfunctions of
the sterilizer. The “pass” response of a chemical indicator does not prove the
item accompanied by the indicator is necessarily sterile. The Association for
the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has defined five classes of chemical
indicators: Class 1 (process indicator); Class 2 (Bowie dick test pack indicator ); Class 3 (single-parameter indicator); Class 4 (multi-parameter
indicator); and Class 5 (integrating indicator).


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